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7.62x51 vs. 7.62x39: Comparing Two Iconic Ammo Types

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The debate surrounding the 7.62×51 ammo and 7.62×39 ammo is as fierce as it is historic. Each ammunition type boasts a storied past and specialized advantages, making them go-to choices for various purposes. In this comprehensive comparison, we’ll dissect the features, histories, and applications of both, guiding you to an informed decision.

7.62x51mm NATO vs. 7.62x39mm: Round Comparison

7.62×51 Ammo

The 7.62x51mm NATO, often interchangeably (but not always correctly) referred to as the .308 Winchester, is a potent rifle cartridge renowned for its range and power. Predominantly used in both military and civilian circles, it’s a favorite for long-range shooting and hunting.

MAGTECH – TACTICAL – 7.62×51 – 147 GRAIN – FMJ – M80

7.62×39 Ammo

Originally of Soviet origin, the 7.62x39mm cartridge is most famously associated with the AK-47 rifle. With a shorter, fatter case than the 7.62×51, it’s known for its reliability in various conditions and its effective mid-range performance.

Wolf Polyformance 7.62x39 Steel FMJ

Recoil Rundown

The 7.62×51 generally has a more noticeable recoil due to its larger powder charge and higher chamber pressures. In contrast, the 7.62×39 offers a more manageable recoil, making it easier for rapid follow-up shots.

Power Dynamics: Knockdown and Stopping Power

When discussing knockdown power, the 7.62×51 holds an advantage. Its heavier bullets and higher velocities lead to greater energy transfer, ensuring effective target neutralization. Consequently, it also edges out the 7.62×39 in stopping power, making it a choice round for larger game.

Effective Range

  • 7.62×51: Known for its long-range capabilities, it’s effective up to 800 yards, with some trained shooters stretching it even further.
  • 7.62×39: Primarily a mid-range cartridge, it shines between 300 to 400 yards, after which its ballistics start to wane.

Reloader’s Preference

The 7.62×51, with its plethora of available bullets and powders, is more versatile for handloaders. Its brass cases are also typically more durable than the often steel-cased 7.62×39, making them better suited for multiple reloads.

Accuracy Ambitions

Given optimal conditions and rifles, the 7.62×51 tends to be more accurate, especially at extended ranges. The 7.62×39, while effective, isn’t typically hailed as a precision long-range cartridge.

Optimal Applications

  • 7.62×51: Perfect for hunting larger game, tactical operations, and long-range target shooting due to its power and accuracy.
  • 7.62×39: Excellent for hunting medium-sized game, home defense, and mid-range target practice. Its reliability across diverse conditions is also noteworthy.

Ballistic Breakdown

The 7.62×51, with its higher velocities and heavier bullets, generally boasts a flatter trajectory. In contrast, the 7.62×39, while efficient, loses velocity quicker and experiences more bullet drop over distance.

Historical Highlights

  • 7.62×51: Developed in the 1950s as a NATO standard, it’s closely related to the civilian .308 Winchester and has been employed in numerous conflicts.
  • 7.62×39: Introduced in the late 1940s, it gained fame as the cartridge of the AK-47. Its use in various global conflicts has cemented its reputation for reliability.

Distinct Differences

Primarily, the 7.62×51 is a longer-ranged, more powerful cartridge, optimized for precision and stopping power. The 7.62×39, on the other hand, is more of a mid-range round, focusing on reliability and manageable recoil.

Frequently Asked Questions about 7.62×51 and 7.62×39

Are 7.62×39 and .308 interchangeable?

No, the 7.62×39 and .308 (7.62×51 NATO) are NOT interchangeable. While both cartridges are referred to as “7.62,” they are quite different in terms of dimensions, ballistics, and intended use. Here are some key differences:

  1. Case Size and Shape: The 7.62×39 has a shorter, more tapered case, while the .308 (7.62×51 NATO) is longer and less tapered.
  2. Ballistics: The .308 typically has a higher velocity and longer effective range than the 7.62×39 due to its larger powder capacity and different bullet characteristics.
  3. Firearm Compatibility: Firearms chambered for one cartridge cannot safely or effectively fire the other. For instance, you cannot fire a .308 round in an AK-47, which is chambered for 7.62×39, and vice versa.
  4. Intended Use: The 7.62×39 was designed for the AK-47 and SKS rifles, focusing on reliability and volume of fire. The .308 (7.62×51 NATO), on the other hand, was designed for both machine guns and precision rifles in NATO-aligned forces, emphasizing longer-range performance and accuracy.

It’s crucial to always use the correct ammunition for a given firearm to ensure safety and proper functioning. Using the wrong ammo can result in catastrophic failures, potentially damaging the gun and causing injury to the shooter or bystanders.

Related: 7.62×39 vs .308 – Comprehensive Comparison

Can you shoot 7.62×51 NATO in a .308 Rifle?

Yes, you can generally shoot 7.62x51mm NATO ammunition in a rifle chambered for .308 Winchester safely, BUT the reverse is not always true. Here’s why:

  1. Pressure: The .308 Winchester typically operates at a higher chamber pressure than the 7.62x51mm NATO. While the difference is not huge, it’s enough to potentially cause issues when firing .308 Winchester rounds in firearms designed specifically for 7.62x51mm NATO.
  2. Chamber Dimensions: The chamber dimensions for rifles chambered in .308 Winchester can be slightly tighter than those designed for 7.62x51mm NATO. This means that .308 Winchester rifles can usually accommodate the slightly different case dimensions of the 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge without problems.
  3. Brass Thickness: Commercial .308 brass can be thinner and softer than 7.62x51mm NATO brass. This can make a difference for reloaders.

It’s essential to always check your firearm’s manual or consult with the manufacturer before using ammunition that’s different from the specified caliber. While many .308 rifles can handle 7.62x51mm NATO ammo without issues, always prioritize safety and ensure you’re using the correct ammunition for your specific firearm.

Is a 7.62×51 NATO and .308 the same round?

The terms “7.62x51mm NATO” and “.308 Winchester” are often used interchangeably, but while they are very similar, they are not exactly the same. Here’s a breakdown:

  1. Origin and Purpose: .308 Winchester ammunition was introduced in 1952 for the civilian hunting market. Shortly thereafter, in the early 1950s, the 7.62x51mm NATO was adopted as a NATO standard cartridge.
  2. Physical Dimensions: The exterior case dimensions of the two cartridges are nearly identical, allowing them to fit in the chamber of firearms designed for either round.
  3. Pressure: The .308 Winchester is typically loaded to higher chamber pressures than the 7.62x51mm NATO. The difference might seem minor, but it can be significant in terms of firearm safety and functionality.
  4. Case Wall Thickness: Military brass, like that used in 7.62x51mm NATO cartridges, often tends to be thicker and more durable than commercial .308 Winchester brass. This can be an important consideration for reloaders.
  5. Chamber Dimensions: Some firearms chambered in 7.62x51mm NATO might have a longer throat or leade, which is the distance between where the bullet sits and where it engages the rifling. This can influence the pressure and velocity when firing.
  6. Interchangeability: Many firearms chambered in .308 Winchester can safely fire 7.62x51mm NATO rounds, but not all firearms chambered for 7.62x51mm NATO are guaranteed to handle the potentially higher pressures of .308 Winchester safely.

In summary, while the 7.62x51mm NATO and .308 Winchester cartridges are very similar and often interchangeable in practical use, there are subtle differences between them.

Conclusion: Deciding the Superior Caliber

Labeling one cartridge as universally superior isn’t straightforward. The best choice boils down to individual needs:

  • For long-range accuracy and larger game: The 7.62×51 is the clear winner.
  • For mid-range engagements, reliability, and less recoil: The 7.62×39 stands out.

Both cartridges have secured legendary status in the ammunition world. Thus, understanding your shooting requirements will guide you to the right pick

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